On 21 September, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon holds a ceremony in New York to ratify the >Paris climate agreement and invites countries that have not yet approved it. The buzz among climate treaty observers and international diplomats is that this haste to impose the deal is in the run-up to the next U.S. election, as a Donald Trump victory could disrupt the apple cart for the global fight against climate change. Although the United States and China, the world`s two largest emitters of greenhouse gases, ratified the treaty at the recent >G20 summit, implementation will not be possible until the agreement enters into force. And that will not happen until 55 countries, which account for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, ratify them. As a result of the international agreement, the hole in the Antarctic ozone layer is slowly recovering. [5] Climate forecasts indicate that the ozone layer will return to its 1980 level between 2050 and 2070. [6] [7] [8] The success of the Montreal Protocol is attributed to its effective burden-sharing and solution proposals, which have helped to mitigate regional conflicts of interest in relation to the inadequacies of the overall regulatory approach to the Kyoto Protocol. [9] However, global regulation was put in place before a scientific consensus was reached, and public opinion was convinced of the potential risks associated with the ozone layer. [10] [11] The Montreal Protocol is too often overlooked because it does not address more potent greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. But the co-benefits of the treaty to reduce the impact on climate change are a big part of the protocol`s history. Nevertheless, efforts are underway to address this growing problem.

Next week, high-level representatives will meet in Kigali, Rwanda, to try to develop an agreement to include CFCs as part of an “expanded” Montreal Protocol. The Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances is the pioneering multilateral environmental agreement that governs the production and consumption of nearly 100 man-made chemicals, known as ozone-depleting substances (SDGs). When these chemicals are released into the atmosphere, they harm the stratospheric ozone layer, the earth`s protective shield that protects humans and the environment from the sun`s harmful rays. The protocol adopted on 15 September 1987 is to date the only UN treaty ever ratified in all the countries of the world – the 197 member states of the United Nations. The experience gained in implementing the Montreal Protocol offers several lessons that can lead to the successful implementation of the climate treaty. Unlike climate change, the science behind ozone depletion was controversial at the time the protocol was signed. It was not until eight years after the Montreal Protocol came into force that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F.

Sherwood Rowland for their work on the formation and decomposition of ozone in the atmosphere. But that has not stopped the countries, the contracting parties, from taking the necessary measures. However, despite the scientific evidence to support global warming and climate change, the signatories of the Paris Treaty have a lot of skepticism to overcome before achieving their goal of keeping global warming below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The treaties are also remarkable in the unique utility of global action, with only 14 years signed between a fundamental scientific discovery (1973) and the international agreement (1985 and 1987). Jaiswal, A., Doniger, D., Kaur, N., Chanrashekhar, V (2020, January 9).